Research has shown that people infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, known as HIV, display reductions in brain volume compared with people who are not infected with HIV. Now, a new study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has shed light on the course of this deterioration and shows that antiretroviral treatment started in the first few years of infection may stop these brain changes. The findings, which were published online on April 24, 2018 in Clinical Infectious Diseases, highlight the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of HIV.

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